The Zanzibar Archipelago is located in the Indian Ocean, about 50 km from the coast of Tanzania, at a latitude between 4.5° and 7° South and a longitude between 40° and 39° East. It consists of two major islands (Unguja and Pemba) and several smaller islands. Zanzibar is part of the Republic of Tanzania, but enjoys a large degree of administrative autonomy from the mainland region and almost all ministries are independent of the central government. The archipelago has 1,303,569 inhabitants in an area of 2,461 km sq. The climate is tropical, with high temperatures from November to March, heavy rainfall from April to June, and little rainfall in November. The language spoken is Swahili, which is widely spoken throughout East Africa. The purest form of Swahili is spoken in Stone Town, the archipelago’s capital. Islam is the most widespread religion, practiced by 99% of the population. The 2018 Human Development Index (HDI) ranks Tanzania 159th globally out of 189 countries surveyed. In rural areas, the income of a substantial proportion of the population is below the poverty line.